2-stroke dirt bikes are amazing machines with a power band all their own making for a very unique riding experience. 2-strokes are said to be somewhat maintenance free but that doesn’t mean that you can just keep getting on and riding without ever giving it any love.
2-stroke dirt bike maintenance involves cleaning the air filter, checking the oil, maintaining the carburetor, cleaning and lubricating the cables, chain, and sprocket, and keeping everything clean and free of mud and dirt after every ride.
Read on to learn more about how a 2-stroke dirt bike works, signs that you may be neglecting maintenance, and some essential maintenance tips to ensure everything is working properly and you get to ride and enjoy your bike.
How Does a 2-Stroke Dirt Bike Work?
A 2-stroke dirt bike engine fires and produces power, once for each revolution of the crankshaft. Every time the piston goes up, it’s filled with a balanced combination of petrol and oil. That combination is compressed, and the spark plug ignites it, which results in an explosion. That action forces the piston to go back down, and the process repeats itself.
What Is the Difference Between a 2-Stroke and a 4-Stroke?
The difference between these two engines is the combustion cycle process depends on the frequency the piston moves up and down during every cycle.
For a 2-stroke engine, the whole combustion cycle requires one piston stroke to be completed. There is a compression stroke and an explosion of the compressed fuel. The return stroke means the exhaust is let out, which allows fresh fuel mixture to get into the cylinder. The spark plugs will fire every single revolution, and this produces power once every two strokes of the piston.
What’s more, you need oil to be pre-mixed in with the fuel with 2-stroke engines.
However, for a 4-stroke engine, the piston completes two strokes during each revolution. That involves one exhaust stroke and one compression stroke. They are each followed by a return stroke. The spark plugs fire once every other revolution, and this produces power every four strokes of the piston.
The 4-stroke engine does not need pre-mixing of oil and fuel as it has a separate compartment for the oil.
Lack of proper maintenance will not only cost you in terms of the fees for replacing the parts, but it could also mean you may not enjoy your ride as much as you’d like. Below are some essential maintenance tips.
The engine of a dirt bike plays a critical role in the overall performance of your dirt bike. The advantage of 2-stroke engines is that they don’t have valves, something that reduces their weight. They also have low output in horsepower and fire once each revolution. 2-stroke engines can function in any position as oil flow isn’t a problem.
On the downside, 2-stroke engine parts wear out a lot. These engines also use more fuel, which means dealing with a lot of pollution. Failure to maintain the engine means you would need to replace the parts often, which is expensive.
Signs You Need to Maintain Your Engine
Some of the signs that you may be neglecting your engine include:
- Diminishing engine power. If you’ve noticed that engine power has diminished, this could be due to a clogged air cleaner, restricted fuel flow in the carburetor, worn rings, worn valves and seats, ignition problems, leaking gaskets, or a stuck valve.
- Hard to start engine. Another indication of a dirt bike engine maintenance problem is when starting your bike becomes an issue. That could be attributed to a stuck valve, worn valves, worn rings, ignition problem, leaking gaskets, the decompression system could be out of adjustment, or the cam timing could be off.
- Noisy top end. A loose cam chain, worn cam bearings, a worn cam chain guide, or out of spec valve clearances could all result in a noisy top end.
- White smoke. When a head gasket starts leaking, you may notice white smoke as soon as the engine starts burning coolant.
- Blue smoke. Blue smoke is an indication that the valve seals could be allowing oil to leak past them. Also, the piston rings may no longer be sealing correctly.
- Creamy engine oil. Creamy engine oil is an indication that moisture could be getting into the engine oil. Too much moisture in the oil should be a concern as this shows the water pump seal could be leaking.
- Engine consumes oil. If you notice that your engine is consuming too much oil, it could be entering into the combustion chamber from worn piston rings or worn valve seals.
- Big pieces of metal in the engine oil. Although metallic particles can be found in engine oil, large metal pieces could indicate damaged parts.
- Engine that vibrates excessively. Worn counterbalance bearings, out of place crankshaft, a loose clutch, or a mistimed counterbalancer could cause excessive engine vibration.
- Noisy bottom end. Bottom end noise could be due to gears that are lubricated improperly, damaged stuck bearings, and a worn bushing and needle bearing between the clutch basket.
Tips on Engine Maintenance
Engine maintenance involves engine oil, air filters, and coolant.
Dirt bike engines are small and work more with high compression ratios. 2-Stroke dirt bike engines require frequent oil changes. You should change the engine oil every ten hours of riding. It doesn’t matter the type of oil you choose as the frequency is more essential.
Pressure and heat can break down oil, and this leaves the engine vulnerable to heat buildup and performance loss.
Changing oil on a 2-stroke dirt bike is simple. It takes a few minutes, and it’s one of the critical maintenance procedures.
Below is a step by step guide on how to change oil.
- Start with a clean bike. Always start with a clean bike. You can warm up the bike as oil drains well when hot. All you need is to take the dirt bike for a spin and turn it off.
- Unscrew the oil cap. Place the bike upright and unscrew the oil cap on the engine casing. Ensure that no dirt drops into the transmission.
- Drain the oil. Put a bucket under the bike and unscrew the drain plug. That will allow the oil to drain out. You need to ensure you get rid of the oil by tilting the bike from side to side.
- Screw the drain plug. Once you drain out all the oil, it’s time to screw the drain plug back. Make sure that you don’t over tighten it or cross thread as this could damage the drain plug. Replace the drain plug if it gets damaged.
- Put the transmission oil. Use the top filler hole to pour in the recommended amount of transmission oil. Your manual should tell you the correct amount. A few bikes allow you to check the oil levels through the check bolt on the side that you can unscrew.
- Screw the oil cap. Wipe any dirt from the oil cap. Check if the washer is in proper condition to make sure it seals tightly. Screw the oil cap back, but don’t over tighten it.
Air filters play a critical role in your dirt bike engine performance. A dirty air filter means airflow is affected, which means your bike won’t function as expected. What’s more, they can damage the engine by allowing dirt particles in the combustion chamber. These particles end up scratching the chamber and messing up with the piston and other parts.
The air filter could also collect moisture, and that means interfering with air filtration. That’s why it’s critical to inspect your air filter regularly. When checking your air filter pay attention to the filter oil coverage, and check for the presence of sand and silt.
It’s recommended to clean the air filter after every ride to avoid wearing out the engine. A simple way to do this is to follow these simple steps:
- Get a cleaner, oil, and rim grease.
- Put some caps of the cleaner into warm water.
- Dip the dirty air filter into the warm water.
- Avoid turning and twisting the filter as this could damage it.
- Squeeze the filter and rinse it off under running water.
- Remove any excess water and allow it to dry.
- Apply oil on the filter evenly once it’s dried completely.
- Don’t forget to clean the rim and apply rim grease.
- Put the air filter back and enjoy your ride.
Having sufficient coolant in the radiator is critical as this is what ensures the engine remains cool always. You may have changed your engine oil and cleaned out the air filter, but failure to have enough coolant could damage your engine.
Make sure you have enough coolant before each ride. If you can’t spot the level of the fluid, that means you have insufficient coolant, and you need to fill it up. When it’s too hot outside, this equals heat. Flush the radiator and put some coolant.
Brake and Brake Pads Maintenance
Another part you should never neglect when doing maintenance is the brake and brake pads of your dirt bike. Front brake pads undergo harsh conditions and are responsible for most of the work. That’s why it’s essential to inspect the brakes and brake pads regularly to ensure you get the strongest performing braking system.
Having functional front brakes comes in handy when you are hitting the ramps since stopping distances are tight when competing.
Front Brakes Maintenance
Start by checking the hydraulic system for adequate pressure or leaks. Simply grab the front brake lever and squeeze it to check for pressure. Inspect the front brake system from the master cylinder to the caliper, while checking for signs of dirt accumulation or wetness.
After inspection, here are some tips on how to maintain brakes for smooth functionality:
- Replace brake fluid. It is time to replace the brake fluid if it’s old or dirty. The fluid absorbs moisture and may require flushing. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations when replacing the fluid.
- Adjust the brake lever. Placing your brake lever incorrectly can lead to the constant pressure of the pads on the rotor. Also, you may be dealing with insufficient pressure. Check to ensure it is adjusted, and everything works correctly.
- Clean the brake pads. Clean up the brake system and the brake pads when cleaning the rest of the bike.
- Clean the clutch cables. The clutch cables are critical parts of your dirt bike. These cables offer access to vital controls, and that’s why you need to keep them in good condition if you plan on using your bike for a long time. You need to clean and lubricate the throttle and clutch cables after every ride.
- Lubricate the clutch cables. When cleaning and lubricating the cables, you need to remove the cable from the lever and perch. Disconnect the carburetor end when dealing with throttle cables and use a standard contact cleaner to do the flushing as this will clean off any grime and dirt. Also, lubricating the cables prolongs the longevity of your cables and prevents the accumulation of mud and dust.
Chain and Sprocket Care
Another essential aspect of a 2-stroke dirt bike maintenance is the chain and sprocket care. Sprockets are critical as they help transfer power to the rear wheel through the help of a drive chain. The sprockets need to endure heavy energy loads and maintain structural functionality.
With this regular stress, the result is constant pressure on the rear sprockets and countershaft. The parts begin to wear out. Avoid riding on dry chains and sprockets as this only damages the bike. It’s advisable to lubricate the chain and sprockets if you are looking for a smooth riding experience.
Inspect your bike for any signs of wear and tear in the chains of your dirt bike. In case of any tear, replace the chain to avoid any accidents. Waterproof lube works best for 2-stroke dirt bike chains as it doesn’t wash away.
Check the Transmission Fluid
Most transmission problems on a dirt bike start with the transmission fluid. The fluid resembles the engine oil as a few dirt bike models use similar oil in the transmission. Check to see if the transmission fluid is fresh and clear.
A dark brown or black cloudy oil shows that the transmission oil is overdue for a replacement, and you need to replace it. Follow the manufacturer’s recommendations when replacing the fluid. Furthermore, you should always check the transmission fluid level a day before riding.
Running the dirt bike with low transmission fluid could damage the internal components and lead to overheating. Low transmission fluid levels also cause wear and tear on the clutch and gears. Check the manual to know the type of oil to use and when to change the transmission fluid.
The pipes are prone to corrosion and rust due to exposure to weather and road conditions. Moreover, the part between the cylinder and exhaust spigot that contains the rubber O-ring is often overlooked.
Check the seal for cracks and other problems. It’s advisable to replace the O-ring. You can use silicone if the new ring doesn’t fit properly.
Spokes often get lost, and also sometimes they can break, leading to a crash. In some cases, the spokes can get caught up in another part of the wheel. You need to check and tighten the spokes if you get a new wheel or when you have a new bike.
When it comes to inspecting the spokes, you need to avoid going through every spoke in a row as this could make the wheel get out of true. Once you’ve tightened the first spoke, skip the next two, and check the third spoke. That means you’ll go through the spokes three times around the wheel. In case of any loose spoke, your wheel won’t be going out of true when you go around it three times.
Another thing to note is to not over tighten the loose spokes as this could get the wheel out of true. Tighten the loose spokes equally to ensure that it stays in place. A spoke torque wrench is a fantastic tool to help you tighten the spokes properly. Read the owner’s manual to understand how to tighten each spoke based on the recommended torque setting.
Carburetor Care and Maintenance
The carburetor is the part likely to fail first if left unchecked. It keeps your dirt bike functioning at peak efficiency. Having a dirty carburetor affects performance, and this could make your bike fail to function.
Some of the signs that indicate it’s time to clean the carburetor include:
- An engine that fails to starts
- The engine begins to run lean when the balance of gas and fuel is thrown off
- Presence of dirt or debris in the carburetor, causing fuel flow out
- An engine that runs rich shows the fuel is excess, and there is insufficient air
Get the required tools before you remove the carburetor and disassemble it. You need to get:
- Safety gloves
- Safety glasses
- A service manual
- A wrench
- Compressed air
- A socket wrench
- A small screwdriver
- A hex key
- A carburetor cleaner
- A low strength thread locker
Start by cleaning the carburetor. However, you need to be careful. The service manual will tell you the specific tools and their size required for cleaning.
What you need to do then is to remove the carburetor from your dirt bike. However, before that, turn off the primary fuel supply and use a tiny screw in the bike’s chamber base and a hose to drain the float chamber. Here are the next steps:
- Remove the slide and control cable once you’ve removed the carburetor from the engine.
- Turn the carburetor upside down and locate the four screws that house the float chamber.
- Remove the screws and use the handle of your screwdriver to loosen the chamber from the gasket.
- Once you remove the float chamber, you’ll see the primary jet, main floats, and jets. Remove the floats as they are delicate.
- Remove the air or fuel adjusting screw in the bike’s carburetor.
- Check the location of the screws to determine the type your carburetor has.
Some of the steps you should take to clean the carburetor include:
- Clean the float bowl. Get a carb cleaner and a rag. Use this to clean the float bowl, while checking all other components of the carburetor.
- Flush out all the holes. The next step is to flush out the holes in the carburetor’s body. You can use a carburetor cleaner and compressed air to blow through these holes. Ensure that you use goggles to cover your eyes from the dirt particles and fluids that may splash from the holes.
- Reinstall the carburetor. The process of assembling the carburetor is similar to the disassembly process. The only thing different is that you need to check the float heights before reconnecting the float chamber. You’ll need to fine-tune the air adjusting screw every time you assemble the bike carburetor. Once you’ve reattached the carburetor and started the engine, give it time to warm up to normal temperature.
Does your 2-stroke dirt bike always become hard to start, or do you experience carbon deposits on the exhaust opening? That could indicate an issue with your reed. Failure to check the outer corners and surfaces of the reed located within the reed cage could affect your dirt bike performance.
Monitor the reeds when you start experiencing problems with your bike. The other alternative would be to replace the reed pedals.
Remove the screws that hold the pedal in place and install a new pedal. All you need is a screwdriver. Use a thread-locking agent on the screws to fit them in place. Moreover, use a fresh gasket when installing the reed cage back in the motor.
Spark Plug Maintenance
The spark plug determines the running condition of your dirt bike’s engine. Cold spark plugs are used on high rpm engines, while hot plugs are used on low rpm engines. If you are having issues with fouling, you should use the stock heat range plug as a start point.
On 2-stroke dirt bikes, oil is mixed into the gasoline, something that allows the spark plug to foul out quicker than 4-stroke dirt bikes. Nonetheless, this is dependent on carb tuning. You’ll need to tune the carb on the rich side to hasten along the plug’s fouling.
Avoid replacing the plug far outside the recommended heat range. Also, it’s best to have a spare spark plug on hand for the unexpected days. Remember that elevation affects spark plugs on 2-stroke dirt bikes because of tuning. That means it will foul faster when you overstretch your dirt bike limits.
Another point of concern is that bad spark plugs could interfere with your dirt bike’s performance. Some signs of a bad dirt bike spark plugs include:
- Having a flooded engine
- A misfiring motorcycle
- Dealing with backfiring
- Physical indicators like rust, burn marks, corrosion, and broken tips
All of the above show that you are dealing with bad spark plugs, and you may need to replace them.
Aging is one reason why your spark plugs could go bad. With time, the plug’s knobs on the end wear out due to sparking. A bike that detonates gas too late or too early means that all the back pressure builds up on the spark plug.
It’s recommended to replace the spark plug every five years. Fortunately, they are simple and affordable to replace.
Your dirt bike comes with fenders, mudguards, and side paneling. All these plastic parts help to protect your bike from debris and dirt. These plastics also come in handy in case of a crash. The last thing you want is faded or dull-looking plastics on your bike.
It’s critical to clean the plastic regularly and keep them in top shape to prevent them from deteriorating. Sometimes you may need to get plastic repair if you break the fender or shroud while you are at the track.
The simplest way is to stitch up the plastic by drilling some holes on both sides of the crack and running zip-ties across. You’ll need to drill a hole at the end of the crack to ensure the cf an inch apart. It’s an easy and quick way to fix the repairs while on track.
Dirt bike tires have an inner tube that sits inside and holds air to keep the tire attached to the rim and inflated. The tire pressure ranges from 8=18 psi, that’s because some types of terrain and riding need less or more tire pressure.
One essential thing you need to do is to check your dirt bike’s tire pressure. The best way to check for pressure is to use a pressure tire gauge. Monitor the pressure at the trail or track and not at home. If you notice that your dirt bike tire doesn’t have the right pressure, you need to use a bike tire pump to hand pump.
Dirt Bike Maintenance Schedule
Having a dirt bike maintenance schedule is essential as it helps you keep track of areas you may have overlooked. A good maintenance schedule needs to include washing, inspection, and lubrication. It should also involve cleaning the air filter, changing the engine oil, checking tire pressure, among other things.
2-stroke dirt bike maintenance is simple. All you need is to check the owner’s manual on the maintenance schedule to follow. The above tips will help you keep your dirt bike in top condition and ensure you don’t have to spend too much money replacing expensive parts.